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middle colonies population

The Dutch, through their trade of manufactured goods with the Iroquois and Algonquians, presumed they had exclusive rights to farming, hunting, and fishing in the region. As a proprietary colony, Penn governed Pennsylvania, yet its citizens were still subject to the English crown and laws. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. The mid-A… Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. This land grant became the Province of New Jersey. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. They were unusual, however, for their degree … In Pennsylvania, sawmills and gristmills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The British Are Coming. Among the first settlers were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683, and the Amish, who established the Northkill Amish Settlement in 1740. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. The Middle Colonies accommodated a diverse mix of religions that included Quakers, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Amish, Congregationalists and Jews. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Middle Colonies later became the states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The colony’s fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey boasted a population of 120,000 by 1775. Slaves could testify in court, sign legal documents, and bring civil actions against whites. William Penn founded the Pennsylvania Colony in 1681 and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. Describe the culture that developed in the New Netherland region and identify the events that lead to the establishment of the New York colony. A: Most people in the middle colonies were Puritan. The 1610-1780 numbers, except for 1776, are estimates from the “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970,” issued by the Census Bureau, which cites as its main sources archival research and the statistical work of various scholars. The colonies grew both geographically and numerically from the time of their founding to the American Revolution (1775–81). In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. The middle colonies were originally settled by the Dutch, however the English saw the Dutch as a threat so they drove the Dutch out. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres, owned by the family that worked them. The Middle Colonies consisted of the middle region of the Thirteen Colonies of the British Empire in North America. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. By 1685 … Turned back by the ice of the Arctic, Hudson sailed up the major river that would later bear his name. Unlike New England, the Middle Colonies had richer, less rocky soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. In 1776, during the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became independent of Britain as the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware. Colonies in Northern America. The Livingstons and the other manorial families who controlled the Hudson River Valley formed a formidable political and economic force. The Middle Colonies became known as … While both the New England colonies and the southern colonies were settled by an overwhelmingly British population, usually with roots in some branch of the Church of England, the middle colonies welcomed a far more diverse population, both from within Britain and from across Europe. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. Some were permitted to work after hours earning wages equal to those paid to white workers. The Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than elsewhere in British North America and were somewhat more socially tolerant. When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York and dubbed it “The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River.” In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow it a separate colonial assembly. A very important man is William Penn. 1) Why did the Middle colonies have the most diverse population in colonial America? The title of patroon was given to some of the Dutch colony’s invested members, who operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The settled areas claimed by the Dutch as New Netherland included what are now the states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut, along with small outposts in present-day Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. If you would like to comment, contact us or like us on Facebook and tell us what you think. In New York’s Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch established the patroon system, which resembled a feudal aristocracy governing vast land grants. Subtracting 114 and adding two equals 3,929,214. The Dutch Reformed were strong in upstate New York and New Jersey, and Congregationalists were important in Long Island. Charles II of England set his sights on the Dutch colony of New Netherland. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. A deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. The original inhabitants of the area included the Hackensack, Tappan, and Acquackanonk tribes in the northeast, and the Raritan and Navesink tribes in the center of the state. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. This diversity started at the early years of the colonies. As they did in other zones of colonization, indigenous peoples played a key role in shaping the history of colonial New York. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. Population in 1700: Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. Until the French and Indian War, Pennsylvania had no militia, few taxes, and no public debt. Admitted to the Dutch Reformed Church and married by its ministers, their children could be baptized. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England’s 120,000 and the Southern Colonies’ 77,000. Its large exports led to its constituent colonies becoming known as the Bread Basket Colonies. In 1681, William Penn founded the Province of Pennsylvania, also known as Pennsylvania Colony, in British America by royal charter. The colony’s land was periodically granted to various proprietors and split into the Province of New York and the Province of Pennsylvania. People moved to the Middle Colonies from New England to escape religious persecution. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists, and the government was initially open to all Christians. For the capital they chose the island of Manhattan, located at the mouth of the river explored by Hudson, which at that time was called the North River. In 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony—the Province of New Jersey. The Middle Colonies and New England were different in that New England was largely Puritan, and, save for Rhode Island (which practiced a form of … New Netherland was originally settled by Henry Hudson in 1609, chartered in 1614, and made a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624. The Charter of Privileges mandated fair dealings with American Indians. The populations of four Colonies—Virginia, Massachusetts, North Carolina and New York—do not include certain territorial claims that became separate states after the Revolution. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow: History Matters! The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. One great leader is Peter Stuyversant. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Manhattan flourished under the Dutch. The Birth of Pennsylvania 1680 cph.3g07157. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. What was the land like in the New England colony during the 1600-1700? Seeking to enter the fur trade, the Dutch cultivated close relations with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. The “Holy Experiment” was an attempt by the Religious Society of Friends to establish a community in Pennsylvania. The land comprising Delaware was first controlled by the Swedish, then the Dutch, and finally the British in Pennsylvania. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. Indentured servitude was especially common in the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though fewer worked in agriculture. They gained the name Quakers because they were said to quake when the inner light moved them. King Charles II granted the land for the Pennsylvania Colony to William Penn in 1681 as payment for a debt the crown owed his family. The Middle Colonies were more diverse than colonies in New England and the South. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. Examine the religious and social factors that shaped the establishment of the Pennsylvania and Delaware colony. The border between the two sections reached the Atlantic Ocean to the north of Atlantic City. William named the capital of his colony as Philadelphia. George Fox had founded the Society of Friends (commonly known as Quakers) in England in the late 1640s, having grown dissatisfied with Puritanism and the idea of predestination. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. *** Immigrants from Asia flocked to the Middle Colonies. In 1737, the Colony spent a great deal of its political goodwill with the native Lenape in pursuit of more land. The Lenape and Susquehanna occupied the land prior to colonization. Jack E. Maxfield, America: A.D. 1601 to 1700. Henry Hudson explored the Middle Colonies on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. The middle colonies had a more diverse population -apex!! New Jersey and Delaware had a majority British population as well, with 7–11% German-descended colonists, about a 6% African population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants. In 1701, it gained a separate assembly from the three upper counties but continued to have the same governor as the rest of Pennsylvania. Broad navigable rivers like the Susquehanna, the Delaware, and the Hudson attracted diverse business, and New York and Philadelphia became important ports. After one of the proprietors sold part of the area to the Quakers, New Jersey was divided into East Jersey and West Jersey—two distinct provinces of the proprietary colony. The document was most likely a forgery; nonetheless, the Provincial Secretary set in motion a plan to grab as much land as possible. The Mason-Dixon line is said to have legally resolved vague outlines between Maryland and Pennsylvania and awarded Delaware to Pennsylvania. Families generally held and worked plots of between 40 and 160 acres. Located in the middle of the Atlantic seaboard, their economies combined the industry of the North with the agriculture of the South. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. How were people in the middle colonies different from those in the New England and southern colonies? The Treaty of Penn with the Indians: Benjamin West’s painting (in 1771) of William Penn’s 1682 treaty with the Lenni Lenape. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer, was hired by the Flemish Protestants running the Dutch East India Company in Amsterdam to find a northeast passage to Asia. Their speech reflected this belief in that they addressed all others as equals, using “thee” and “thou” rather than terms like “your lordship” or “my lady” that were customary for privileged individuals of the hereditary elite. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England’s 120,000 and the Southern Colonies’ 77,000. William Penn had asked for and later received the lands of Delaware from the Duke of York. They consisted of the future states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and sometimes Maryland.Today these areas are described as the Mid-Atlantic States.The middle colonies were the most ethnically and religously diverse of the 13 original colonies because they were also the most tolerant. Increasing encroachment by European settlers led to the early stages of violent conflict. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when it was renamed New Castle after the Duke of York. Towns in these colonies often had more than one kind of church. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. Representatives from both areas clashed and, in 1701, Penn agreed to two separate assemblies. Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania, which called for religious tolerance towards many, including local American Indians and the Religious Society of Friends. 1. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. September 17, 2013. The Charter of Privileges mandated fair dealings with American Indians. For two centuries, New Netherland Dutch culture characterized the region, and their concepts of civil liberties and pluralism introduced in the province became mainstays of American political and social life. Quakers initially interacted respectfully with the Lenape and Susquehanna; however, future quests for land by the British government led to violence and hostility. The assembly’s 1683 Charter of Liberties and Privileges set out the traditional rights of Englishmen, like the right to trial by jury and the right to representative government. When the colony fell to the British, the Company freed all of its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free Africans in the Northeast. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed only sporadically. Much of the area captured by the British from the Dutch in 1664 became the Province of New York. Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, the Carolinas and Georgia were all founded by Englishmen, settled by people of English descent and remained under English control throughout the colonial period. Penn received the charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II and brought over Quaker dissidents from England, Wales, the Netherlands, and France. The political division existed from 1674 to 1702. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies and what would become the United States. Joan Vinckeboons (Johannes Vingboon), “Manatvs gelegen op de Noot Riuier”, 1639: In this map (c. 1639), Manhattan is situated on the North River. Penn had a hard time governing Delaware because the economy and geology were largely the same as that of the Chesapeake, rather than that of his Pennsylvania territory. The Middle Colonies included New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The Quakers also refused to provide any assistance to New England’s Indian wars. The largest of these estates, at 160,000 acres, was given to Robert Livingston in 1686. The Quakers had previously treated American Indians with respect, bought land from them voluntarily, and even had representation of American Indians on juries. Most of the early settlers depended on the fur trade and on farming for economic survival. Compare the culture of the Middle Colonies with that of other English colonies. Eighteenth-century New York City, meanwhile, contained a variety of people and religions—as well as Dutch and English people, and it held French Protestants (Huguenots), Jews, Puritans, Quakers, Anglicans, and a large population of slaves. Early European colonists in the Middle Colonies included Germans, Scotch-Irish, French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders. During the Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1650s and 1660s, the two powers attempted to gain commercial advantages in the Atlantic World. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax, making it the leading food producer in North America from 1725 to 1840. Delawareans would meet in New Castle and Pennsylvanians would gather in Philadelphia. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Delaware Colony became a region of the Province of Pennsylvania, although never legally a separate colony. As the colonies were established throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the population grew immensely, starting at just 2,000 people and rising to over 2 million. When a powerful English military unit appeared in New Amsterdam, Governor Stuyvesant was forced to surrender and New Netherland became New York. Another important person is captain Henry Hudson who discovered the Hudson river. Collectively called River Indians by the Dutch, they were also known as the Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and the Tappan. The most populous of the Middle colonies was Pennsylvania, other colonies were settled rather haphazardly over the course of … Licenses and Attributions CC licensed content, Shared previously In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York was separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. Under his guidance, Philadelphia became a fabulous city, with broad, tree-shaded streets, stone and brick houses, and a bustling port. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. When the colony fell, the company freed all its slaves, establishing early on a nucleus of free blacks. Upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, Penn eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. D: The population in the middle colonies was more diverse. Soon after the English had gained control of New Netherland, James granted the land between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War and named it New Jersey after the English Channel Island of Jersey. Some townships emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. This could not be said of the middle colonies. The Middle colonies benefited from having a very diverse geography, which lent itself to more economic opportunity than the other colonies. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. The Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware were founded in the early to late 1600s depending on the colony. (1point) Leaders of the Middle Colonies advertised in Europe to attract more settlers. Land grants made in connection to the importation of slaves were another enticement for settlers. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery to New Netherland in 1625. The 1790 number is the official count in the first national census undertaken by the federal government under provisions of the Constitution of 1787. The Dutch West India Company had introduced slavery in 1625. The northern and southern American colonies had plenty of differences, but one thing they all pretty much had in common was ancestry. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. Society/Culture Delaware was at first an all white colony, however in years that came, delaware took on slaves, but in a small number. William Penn and his fellow Quakers imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government; the Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists, and the government was initially open to all Christians. In New York ‘s Hudson Valley, the Dutch established a poltroon system which resembled a feudal aristocracy with vast land grants. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials. In New York’s Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. In an early attempt to encourage European settlement, the New Jersey legislature enacted a prohibitive tariff against imported slaves and in favor of European indentured servitude. After Charles II came to the throne, the English became very interested in the Dutch holdings. Other important industries included printing, publishing, and the related industry of papermaking. This document provided for religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. It wasn’t until 1683, almost 20 years after the English took control of the colony, that colonists were able to convene a local representative legislature. Munsee inhabited the Highlands, Hudson Valley, and northern New Jersey, while Minquas, also known as the Susquehannocks, lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River. Middle Colonies: The Middle Colonies was comprised of Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. C: The population in the middle colonies was less tolerant. It encompassed parts of the later states of New Jersey, Delaware, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe and a high degree of religious tolerance. From 1682 until 1776, it was part of the Penn proprietorship and was known as the Lower Counties. The Middle Colonies were more cosmopolitan and tolerant than the New England colonies. Because of various colonial masters in the area, religious traditions from many European countries existed in the area. By 1685 its population was almost 9,000. The Dutch in New York chafed under English rule. The English continued the Dutch patroonship system, granting large estates to a favored few families. Rather, Fox and his followers stressed that everyone had an “inner light” inside him or her—a spark of divinity. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn’s Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed governor, the proprietor, a Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly. 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